1. CONTEMPORARY SECURITY THREATS
Contemporary Forms of Threats
Military Aspects and Factors of Modern Security
Modern Concepts of Protection and Security
The nature of global security has changed dramatically in the last decade in favour of insecurity; overnight business has found itself, together with the governments of national states in the focus of this insecurity. In the recent several years EU and NATO have clearly defined the scope of operation and the breakdown of the most important threats which are terrorism, proliferation of mass destruction weapons, organized crime, corruption, production and sales of narcotics, fundamentalism, trafficking and anthropogenic and natural disasters. When modern threats to business have been defined it became clear that they threaten even the very essence of the international security and living environment, the very prosperity and even the survival of humanity. In the fight against these new forms of threats the police forces and intelligence security agencies are not sufficient, but rather both a place and a role of the protection and rescue system as well as private sector and all other subjects of all forms of operation have to be found, and the role and tasks of military alliances and the police have to be reviewed. The aim of discussion about this topic is better understanding of the role of public security and private protection in the protection of lives of people and assets. The attempt will be made to do this through the answers to questions how to recognise on time new threats and how to isolate them and reduce the damages, i.e. how to efficiently answer the threat. This needs to be found in the analysis of the vulnerability of world economy to new threats, impact of globalisation on business risk, in the analysis of the scope and scale of current threats of financing and economy, and especially in the analysis of specific threats such as organised crime and terrorism, electronic banking, money transfer, forgery and fraud.
2. SECURITY OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT
Security of local communities in the globalized world
Problems of crisis management in local communities
Crisis management in local communities – good examples
Sectorial approach to crisis management in local communities
Relations of local, regional, and state levels in crisis management
Critical Infrastructure Protection
At the beginning of the 21st century security is becoming increasingly important and related to all aspects of human life. New security paradigm includes expansion of the security concept along the vertical from the individual to the global community. Security is expanding also along the horizontal and to various sectors of social life, from the traditional military life, via social and economic to the ecological life. Dynamic social changes on the global level and in many countries in the world, have influenced the reduction in the significance of the traditional state and strengthening of the international organizations on the one side and the local communities on the other. An especially dynamic development related to the issues of security is occurring in local communities that encounter increasing security challenges which require efficient response. Natural disasters, organized crime, social conflicts, ecological threats and migrations are just some of the challenges faced by local communities. Therefore, the local communities are developing systems of crisis management appropriate to their needs, as well as adjustments to regional and state level. The goal of the discussions about this topic is to better understand the role of local communities in crisis management and to achieve the security of citizens as well as to analyse various experiences in Croatia and the neighbouring countries.
3. BUSINESS CONTINUITY
Management of Business Continuity in Crisis Situations
Management of Risks and Analysis of Impact on Business
Business Continuity Strategies in Crises
Incident Management Systems
Plans for Business Continuity Assurance
Training of Business Continuity Plans
Business continuity is the ability of the organization to continue delivering its products and services at an acceptable level even after an incident or crisis that caused a temporary interruption. Any incident, big or small, caused by natural disaster, accidental or intentional human activity has the potential to cause disruption of the organization operation and delivery of its products and services. Such specific incident, unexpected event and emergency or a series thereof is defined as a crisis, which can cause insecurity and threats to the achievement of the strategic goals of the organization. Crises can be different. Some are crises of physical nature whose cause comes from the environment or are caused by forces of nature, such as e.g. floods, earthquakes, droughts, fires, etc. Besides, there may be crises caused by improper usage, lack of knowledge or just insufficient education of the employees related to the usage of new technological advances or due to political and economic instability of the environment within which the organizations operate. Crisis situations may be caused also by terrorist attacks. Whatever the cause of crisis, it is important to prepare on time the strategy of handling such crisis situations as well as business continuity plans that will enable continuation of work of the organization at an acceptable level. For this purpose, it is necessary to conduct risk assessment and to analyse the impact of disruption caused by the crisis on the organization business. The results of such analyses will create the preconditions to define clear strategies of business continuity and the priorities in the recovery of certain business segments. Based on this, it is necessary to prepare the business continuity plans which will be followed in the event of a crisis. Such plans have to elaborate in detail all the activities that have to be carried out in order to continue the business in case of crisis according to the predefined acceptable level and within the afore-defined time period. In order for these plans to be effective in application, it is necessary to test them and inform all the participants and train them in case of crises. With such approach the organization insures its survival even in case of crisis situations.
4. CRISIS COMMUNICATION AND RISK MANAGEMENT
Crisis Management, Communication Management and Crisis Communication
Specific Characteristics of Media Relatons in Crises
Techniques, Tools, and Public Relations Channels in Crisis Situations
Public and Crisis Communication
Case Studies of Crisis Communication
In crisis conditions the ability for effective communication with key audiences is the basic issue for any organization. The information on the existence of crisis in the organization reaches the public first of all by means of the media. In crisis conditions the media will find by themselves a representative for public relations, in accordance with the myth that the “bad news stimulates sales”. Dealing with the media is part of every crisis, since the media are the guards that on behalf of the society follow and judge all the major events and behaviour of the participating actors, realising the right of the public to information and trying to protect in this way the public interest. The media are the key intermediary used by the organization in crisis situation communicating with the key audiences. Therefore, public relations have an even greater significance during the crisis than in normal conditions. With their method of reporting about the crisis, the media influence its perception in public and they can contribute to its escalation or calming down, they can delegate responsibility, affect the degree to which the image of the organization will be undermined as well as the speed of its post-crisis recovery.
5. SYSTEMS, DEVICES, MEANS AND EQUIPMENT FOR CRISIS MANAGEMENT
Modern Systems for Crisis Management
Modern Devices for Crisis Management
Modern Means and Equipment for Crisis Management
Information Systems of Crisis Management Organizations
Simulation Systems of Crisis Management
The invention of gunpowder, steam engine, and internal combustion engine, electricity, and in the last seventy years nuclear energy as well, have given incentive to rapid technological development of the modern human. The result of the technological development has affected the possibility of satisfying the human need for better living and reduction of having to depend on the whims of nature, but on the other hand they have affected the occurrence of new anthropogenic threats in the form of consequences of technological disasters, new methods and forms of warfare related to creation of new weapons and other new anthropogenic threats such as environmental pollution, migration of population and impacts of natural and anthropogenic threats such as tsunami in Japan in 2011 which caused nuclear disaster and further environmental anthropogenic pollution. New technologies have created new threats in the form of nuclear, chemical and biological industrial plants and their warehouses that, initiated by natural and/or anthropogenic causes create acute and delayed disasters with nuclear, radiological, chemical and biological consequences equal and even greater than those caused by NBC weapons. Hard to believe? Today, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the cities that were attacked by nuclear bombs, there live today over three million people, and in Chernobyl and the surroundings there are almost two million square kilometres where for another hundreds of years no people will be able to live. Second example: in the last ten years only, in the EU over 20,000 have been evacuated due to accidents in the chemical plants, over a thousand injured and over a hundred killed. Thus, these new threats with enormous, never seen potential CBRN threats have created a very dangerous surrounding for the action of the first response: firefighters, emergency medical assistance and civil protection. Very often the first response has to wait from several hours to several days for the situation to allow intervention due to explosions, open fire, shrapnels, caving, high concentrations of toxic matter, low oxygen concentrations, high intensity of ionising radiation, radioactive contamination and others. As example one can indicate the data that in the last ten years only, over 3,500 people were killed and over 12,000 were injured as consequence of explosions in military warehouses. Parallel with technological risks and dangers there is increased risk from contemporary weapons in the form of armament and associated systems of 4th and 5th generation that are the main causes of non-conventional and asymmetric wars as well as asymmetric responses of those who have no symmetrical weapons systems in the form of terrorism. All the mentioned risks and hazards create new environments and new situations for the operation of the former that have started to be named “extremely hot zone” in which not only that the members of the first response are exposed to the danger, but can neither enter the specified zone. These are areas and situations because of which the human seeks help with this same new knowledge and new technologies. The result of the mentioned search are new systems, devices, means and equipment for crisis management:
Information technologies and information systems: (sensors and detectors as information technologies: hydro-meteorological, chemical, radiological, biological, topographic (lidar, GPS, etc.) and video systems: cameras optical, hyperspectral, thermal, etc.); (information systems: two information technologies = system). Crisis management organizations (fire brigades, emergency organizations, police forces, military task forces, and the like) have special structure and business processes that occur in several phases (phase of preparedness, phase of crisis solving, phase of crisis consequence recovery). For this purpose the information technology (hardware and software) which is applied in such organizations, has to give support to the mentioned processes in all phases. Information systems for this type of organizations are specifically designed depending on their missions and processes. Although for some of the processes there exists a developed good application support (e.g. early warning systems), unique information systems for such organizations, that would give support to the processes at all three levels (performance, management and decision-making) are rare (with the exception of military systems). Another form of information technology application in organisations of crisis management are information systems that give support to decision-making training. These systems are most often simulation systems that perform simulations in different areas, using geographic information subsystems.
Remote operated systems: With its robust construction and used materials they can survive in extremely hot zone, remove by tools the barriers on the direction of intervention, by video and thermal cameras record situations, with sensors and detectors perform the analysis of ambient situation and send in real time both the image and data to the members of the first response and their headquarters. With the help of the upgrade system whose profile and purpose depend on the purpose and goal of intervention, they can start with the recovery of accident situation: to put out the fire, decontaminate, remove hazardous substances, neutralise explosive devices and many others, including also the evacuation of the survivors. The most famous modern remote-operated systems for the needs of defence and security are unmanned aerial vehicles, better known as “drones” of different types and forms (wing systems with turbo-fan, fan or jet propulsion and systems with helicopter propulsion, e.g. “quadcopters”), equipped with systems for reconnaissance, surveillance and gathering of data or armed combat systems or some other tools and accessories such as e.g. communication, relay stations, and the like. But certainly the drones are neither the only nor the most numerous ones. There are unmanned, remote-controllable systems in the form of submarines and underwater vehicles, various police and military incorrectly called “robots”, in the fight against improvised explosive devices, for reconnaissance, in combat engineer corps, NBC defence, and the like. Apart from the combat military and police remote-controllable systems, increasingly the remote-controllable systems are used for the needs of civil defence (civil protection and firefighting) and the civil sector (industry) as response to extremely hot zones. What are in fact remote-controllable systems (RCS)? These are the systems that are controlled remotely with wire and without wire with the aid of communication radio frequency. As opposed to these, the autonomous systems are systems that perform certain (defined) activities autonomously, and as an example we can mention vehicles that from point “a” reach point “b” without human control. Such are also some of the combat systems such as cruise missiles. Remote-controllable systems can perform also some activities autonomously, which requires certain software that will define and manage the system according to defined algorithms. The autonomy in military terms refers both to energy or energy agents autonomy of any system (remote-controllable, autonomous or controllable by human crew), which means that the system allows coming from a point and return back to the starting point without filling up with energy source (oil derivate or nuclear power source) or energy (mostly electricity). Robot systems, however, are systems that using artificial intelligence identify and process the problem by themselves, make decision and consequently perform tasks autonomously.
Devices: Modern threats require also answers by modern devices such as firefighting, decontamination, communication, filtration and colpro device for action in RCB conditions, devices for water filtering, etc. All devices that are used for control in modern crises have to satisfy the tactical conditions of usage in new extreme conditions such as nuclear and radiological, chemical, biological conditions, high temperatures, conditions of urban centres, etc. The mentioned challenges can be handled only by devices designed and produced in accordance with the latest technological achievements, and with careful scrutiny of new anthropogenic challenges.
Means and Equipment for Crisis Management: Apart from the means and equipment for individual and collective protection, this category includes also the means and equipment for the recovery and taking care of a large number of people and animals in extreme conditions caused by nuclear, chemical and biological disasters. New technologies and new materials used in designing and development and eventually also the production of the mentioned means and equipment are based on the aramid and semi-aramid material resistant to high and low temperatures, open fire, and other physical harm such as ballistic action, shrapnels and fragmentation of blast and crash action and radiological, chemical and biological risk.
6. ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
Policies, Strategies, Plans for Secure Environment
Sea Waste – from Theory to Practice
Global Pollution and our Contribution to Solutions
Dangerous Waste – Solutions and Dilemmas
Circular Economy – Safe Direction or Unknown
Actual Technologies of Waste Disposal
Environmental issues are closely related to all human activities and they should be regarded as such. In the social environment there is often talk about climate change as a global issue that has occurred due to irresponsible behaviour of generations before us as well as of current generations. Partly, the causes are found in the technological development and industry which are inevitable in the 21st century, but the question is how to respond in the best possible way to the goals of sustainability in our environment and beyond. Many environmental issues that have not been considered for years or have not been discussed sufficiently include the issue of dangerous waste, open so-called “black spots”, military waste, security and quality of the supply of potable water, energy stability and renewable sources of energy and the increasing problem of sea waste. Although the hierarchy of handling waste mentions the fact that prevention of waste is the first and most important step in the integral waste management system the question is how to find a satisfactory ratio between safe and beautiful environment, technology and waste. In the context of considering the width of environmental topics, and through the following topical units the attempt will be made to find the answers.